Explain Why Viroids Can Only Infect And Damage Plant Cells, But Not Animal Cells?

Explain the reason why only plant cells can be infected and damaged by viroids, but animal cells cannot. Plant cells have RNA polymerase, however animal cells do not have this enzyme. RNA polymerase can replicate RNA. A viroid is another name for a bacteriophage that does not have the characteristic proteinaceous capsid structure.

Explain the reason why only plant cells can be infected and damaged by viroids, but animal cells cannot. RNA is what makes up the genome of plant cells, whereas DNA is what makes up the genome of animal cells. – Plant cells have RNA polymerase, however animal cells do not have this enzyme. RNA polymerase can replicate RNA.

Do viroids only infect plants?

Investigations into Biodiversity There is no evidence to suggest that viroids only infect plants; rather, the majority of experiments to find viroids have been carried out using plants, and only a few experiments have been carried out to find viroids in animals.Despite this, there is no evidence to suggest that viroids only infect plants.Viroids are suspected to be one of the disease-causing factors that contribute to the development of hepatitis D.

What do plant and animal cells have in common?

RNA is what makes up the genome of plant cells, whereas DNA is what makes up the genome of animal cells. Even while both animal and plant cells contain RNA, only plant cells have a particular receptor on their surface that viroids can identify. Plant cells do not have the enzyme RNA polymerase, which is necessary in order to replicate RNA, but animal cells have.

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What is the mode of viroid interference with host metabolism?

It is not clear how exactly viroid interaction with host metabolism produces the symptoms that are distinctive of the infection. Viroid-induced metabolic aberrations are responsible for the production of host proteins in plants that have been infected by certain viruses. These viruses cause the host to produce certain proteins in greater quantities than healthy plants of the same species.

Why do viroids infect only plants?

24.35). Viroids do not have a protein coat, thus they do not have attachment proteins. As a result, they are unable to detect healthy cells and cannot enter them like a real virus can. Viroids are unable to permeate a plant cell unless the membrane that surrounds the cell has previously been disrupted. In many cases, they profit from the harm that insects cause to the tissue of plants.

Can viroids infect plants and animals?

To until far, viroids have only been recognized as pathogens of higher plants; nonetheless, it is quite likely that some animal illnesses, including those affecting humans, are caused by agents with a similar mechanism.

How do viroids infect plant cells?

After replication, viroid offspring leave the nucleus or chloroplast and go to nearby cells through plasmodesmata. They are also able to travel systemically to infect other cells by traveling through the phloem. Viroids go into the plant through the pollen and the ovule, and then they make their way into the seed. As soon as the seed sprouts, the new plant is afflicted with the disease.

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Do viroids only infect animals?

Viroids only infect plants, and infectious viroids can be passed on to new plant hosts by aphids, by cross contamination following mechanical damage to plants as a result of horticultural or agricultural practices, or by passing from plant to plant through leaf contact. Viroids are not known to infect animals.

How do viroids cause disease?

Viroids may be responsible for illness because their genomic RNA interacts with proteins produced by the host. On the other hand, tiny RNAs generated from viroids may be able to silence the expression of host RNA or DNA.

How does viroids spread and transmitted?

Viroids are most frequently passed on from plant to plant through the process of vegetative multiplication; however, they can also be passed on through agricultural or horticultural methods that include the use of infected equipment. At least one viroid may be transmitted by an aphid, and certain viruses can be passed on through the transmission of seeds.

Can viroids infect humans?

The structure of viroids is distinct from that of viruses, as they do not have a protein coat. The adult viroids can only infect plants; they are incapable of infecting people, and as a result, they do not cause any diseases in humans.

Why are viroids nucleases resistant?

Why are nucleases unable to break down the viroids?Due to the fact that their RNA ″genome″ is circular, they are resistant to the digestion of the majority of exonucleases, which are enzymes that nibble and digest the free ends of RNA and DNA.Due to the fact that their RNA ″genome″ is circular and they lack a protein shell, they are immune to the actions of nucleases that degrade proteins.

What are the importance of viroids?

The tiniest RNA molecules that are able to infect plants and replicate themselves without the need for an encoding protein have been identified as viroids. This discovery was made 47 years ago. The study of viral particles was the impetus for the creation of a number of novel approaches.

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What is a viroid plant virus?

Viroids are a kind of noncoding RNA that are single-stranded, covalently closed, circular, and highly structured. They are responsible for illness in a number of commercially significant agricultural plants. They are capable of independent reproduction and can travel through the host plants in a systemic manner with the assistance of the host machinery.

Which of the following disease is caused by viroids in plants?

Citrus exocortis, cucumber pale fruit, chrysanthemum stunt, and other diseases are examples of those that may be induced by viroids in plants.

What are viroids quizlet?

Viroids are the tiniest infectious microorganisms that have ever been discovered.They are made up entirely of a short strand of circular, single-stranded RNA and have no protein coats on their exteriors.Every known viroid lives in a higher plant host, and the vast majority of them are pathogens that may cause illnesses, some of which can have a negligible impact on the economy while others can have a disastrous one.

Do viroids affect animals?

No. It is well established that only plants may be infected by viroids.

What are the characteristics of viroids?

Viroids Have The Following Traits In Common: RNA is the sole component of viroids.These are often considered to be of a smaller size and exclusively infect plants.These are some of the tiniest infectious disease-causing agents that have ever been discovered.

The nucleic acid species known as viroids have a singular structure and a low molecular weight in comparison to other types of nucleic acid.

Why are viroids different from viruses?

Viroids are distinguished from viruses by the absence of a protein sheath around their RNA molecules. In contrast, the genetic material that makes up a virus can be either DNA or RNA, and it is encased in a protein coat.